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  • Balkans. History and Historiography

  • Author: Adanir, Fikret

  • Publisher: Eren Yayincilik

  • ISBN: 9789756372555

  • Publication Date & Place: 2014 / İstanbul

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Book details

400 pp, pb, in English.

The eight articles and book chapters included in this volume were written in the course of several decades during which I worked, be it as graduate student, research assistant or professor of history, at the universities of Frankfurt am Main, Gießen, Berlin (Freie Universität) and Bochum. They address questions and issues related to the social, economic and political history of the Balkans under Ottoman rule in general and how they were answered or discussed in the framework of national historiographies in particular. Although some of the arguments propounded in these texts may seem today rather outdated or of little relevance to current discourses, there are others that might be considered as still valid. At any rate, I have been persuaded to publish these texts, not least in order to make them easily accessible to students in the field.


  • Preface and Acknowledgements
  • Contents
  • The Macedonian Question: The Socio-Economic Reality and Problems
  • of Its Historiographic Interpretation
  • Land Tenure Relationships, 1878-1913
  • Urban Development in Macedonia under the Ottomans
  • The Razlovech Uprising of 1876
  • Tradition and Rural Change in Southeastern Europe During Ottoman Rule
  • Agriculture and Settlement at the Time of the Ottoman Conquest
  • The Classical Ottoman Land Regime
  • Rural Change During the Seventeenth Century
  • Export-Oriented Agriculture and the Ottoman Landholding
  • Category Çiftlik
  • Conclusion
  • The Macedonians in the Ottoman Empire, 1878-1912
  • Introduction
  • General Conditions
  • Social and Economic Conditions
  • Political System
  • The Millet System
  • The Secular Concept of Ottomanism
  • The Influence of the Great Powers
  • Macedonia and the Neighbouring Nation-States
  • The Young Turk Opposition
  • The National Movement and its Activists
  • History of the National Movement
  • The Church Question in Macedonia
  • Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization
  • The Ilinden Uprising of 1903
  • The Young Turk Revolution of 1908
  • The Balkan Wars of 1912-3 and the Partition of Macedonia
  • Formation of the National Elite
  • Organisational Structure, Channels of Communication and the National Elite
  • The Ottoman Government and the National Elite
  • State of Research
  • The National Question and the Development of Socialism: 
  • The Case of Ottoman Macedonia
  • Social and Economic Conditions in Ottoman Macedonia
  • The Emergence of the Macedonian Question
  • Socialists and the Macedonian Liberation Movement
  • The Attempted Uprising of 1895 and the Socialists
  • Socialist Polemic about Participation in the Macedonian Movement
  • The Macedonian Socialist Group
  • Anarchists in the Macedonian Revolutionary Movement Socialists  and the Ilinden Uprising
  • Federalism, Socialism and the IMRO
  • The Young Turk Revolution and the Socialists
  • The Young Turk Programme of 1908
  • The Strike Movement of 1908 and the CUP
  • Conclusion
  • The Ottoman Peasantries, c. 1360 - c. 1860
  • Agriculture and Settlement in the Late Medieval Period 164 Peasantries in an Expanding Empire:  The Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries
  • Status and Taxation
  • Settlement, Agriculture, Population
  • Tax-Farmers, Brigands and Sharecroppers: Rural Life in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
  • From Sipahi to Tax-Farmer
  • Çiftliks and Commercial Agriculture
  • Forms of Peasant Protest
  • Peasants and Petitioners
  • Haiduks and Klephts
  • Peasantries and Agriculture at the End of the Ottoman Ancien Régime: First Half of the Nineteenth Century
  • The Socio-political Environment of Balkan Nationalism: the Case of Ottoman Macedonia, 1856-1912
  • Historiographical Traditions
  • The Orthodox Church and Ottoman Legitimacy
  • The Cultural Isolation of Balkan Christians from Europe
  • The Paradigm of Ottoman Decline
  • Nationalist Challenge and Ottoman Response
  • The Ottoman State and the European State System
  • The Uprisings in Serbia and Greece 232 Ottomanism as State Nationalism
  • The Ottoman Constitution of 1876
  • Ottoman Macedonia and the Macedonian Question
  • Social and Economic Conditions
  • The Emergence of the Macedonian Question
  • Attitudes and Possible Solutions 244 The Bulgarian Cause
  • The Regime of Abdulhamid II
  • The Young Turks and the IMRO
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Balkan Historiography Related to the Ottoman Empire since 1945
  • The Formation of a ‘Muslim’ Nation in Bosnia-Hercegovina: 
  • A Historiographic Discussion
  • Introduction: Bosnian Muslims and South Slav nationalism
  • Bosnia under Ottoman rule: history-writing and nation-formation
  • Bosniaks – why did they embrace Islam?
  • Questions of ethnic origin – Muslim Slavs or 'Turks'?
  • Conclusion: historiography and national politics
  • Bibliography
  • Index


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